The debate over digital privacy flamed higher this week with news that Apple Inc.’s popular iPhones and iPads store users’ GPS coordinates for a year or more. Phones that run Google Inc.’s Android software also store users’ location data. And not only is the data stored — allowing anyone who can get their hands on the device to piece together a chillingly accurate profile of where you’ve been — but it’s also transmitted back to the companies to use for their own research.
Now, cellphone service providers have had customers’ location data for almost as long as there have been cellphones. That’s how they make sure to route calls and Internet traffic to the right place. Law enforcement analyzes location data on iPhones for criminal evidence — a practice that Alex Levinson, technical lead for firm Katana Forensics, said has helped lead to convictions. And both Apple and Google have said that the location data they collect from the phones is anonymous and not able to be tied back to specific users.
But lawmakers and many users say the storage of that data creates the potential for details about ones’ private lives to be misused. The fact that data is collected at all puts it at risk of falling into the hands of computer hackers. Levinson, who raised the iPhone tracking issue last year, agrees that people should start thinking about location data as just as valuable and worth protecting as a wallet or bank account number.
Privacy watchdogs note that location data provides a window into very private details about a person’s life, including the doctors they see, the friends they have and the places where they like to spend their time. Besides hackers, databases filled with such information could become inviting targets for stalkers, even divorce lawyers. Do you sync your iPhone to your computer? Well then, all it would take to find out where you’ve been is simple, free software that pulls information from the computer. Voila! Your comings and goings, clandestine or otherwise, helpfully pinpointed on a map.
And the fact that your location is a moving target makes it that much more alluring for advertisers. Every new place you go represents a new selling opportunity. In that sense, smartphone technology is the ultimate matchmaker for marketers looking to assemble profiles on prospective customers. That profiling is what makes some users uneasy.
At a technology conference in San Francisco this week, security researchers disclosed that iPhones and iPads keep a small file of location data on their users. That file is transferred to other machines when you sync your phone to your computer to back up information. It’s a target for hackers because the file isn’t encrypted. Security firm F-Secure Corp. said the iPhone sends users’ location data to Apple twice a day to improve its database of known Wi-Fi networks. The data that is available goes back at least a year, to the launch of Apple’s new iOS 4 operating software. Researchers say the tracking was going on before that, though the file was in a different format and wasn’t easy to find until the new system came out.
Google acknowledged on Friday that it does store some location data directly on phones for a short time from users who have chosen to use GPS services “in order to provide a better mobile experience on Android devices.” But it too stressed that any location sharing on Android is done with the user’s permission. BlackBerry maker Research in Motion Ltd. did not respond to a message from The Associated Press left late Friday.
The Federal Commun-ications Commission says it is examining the issue. The Federal Trade Commission also has said it wants to ensure that mobile services that gather location data do so with the full understanding and permission of users.
Jordan Robertson is a technology writer for the Associated Press.